Dictionary

 


12 Step Groups

The original 12 Steps come from the Alcoholics Anonymous’ foundational agreements, where an alcoholic progresses through 12 distinct stages toward maintaining sobriety; recent adaptations of 12 Steps have adopted Higher Power verbage, thereb...

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16 Steps For Discovery and Empowerment

16 Steps’ model focuses on a holistic approach to viewing people in their wholeness– “mind, body and spirit.” This conceptualization views addiction as a complex web of social factors, physical, pre-disposition and personal...

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Abuse and Neglect

In attempting to buttress parental rights while simultaneously protecting its young citizens from unacceptable threat or harm, the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) (42 U.S.C.A. § 5106g) defines child abuse and neglect,...

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Academic Failure

Volumes of research attempt to isolate academic conditions in relation to national income, gender, income inequality, poverty, school location and class size, etc. While each of these play significant roles in general trends, schools that offer ex...

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Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

An empirically-based psychotherapy which argues that “psychological suffering is usually caused by the interface between human language and cognition, and the control of human behavior by direct experience.”  ACT seems closely rel...

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Addiction

Everyone is familiar with the maxim that addiction is insanity is “doing the same thing time and again, always expecting a different result.” On the ground, this definition seems a bit trite and judgmental, and likely useful for a more...

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ADHD

According to the Mayo Clinic, ADHD includes “a combination of problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior”, any and all of which affects school performance, social relationships and self este...

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Adoption

To adopt is to “legally take another’s child and bring it up as one’s own” (Oxford Dictionary). Silverstein and Kaplan (1982) listed 7 considerations that every adoption introduces: Loss, Rejection, Guilt and Shame, Grief, ...

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Alcoholics Anonymous

Unlike medical treatment or even psychotherapy, the support principles of Alcoholics Anonymous (“AA”),organized ~1930, start, fundamentally, that the addict, with sponsorship and firm guidance from addicts before, can effectively comba...

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Alcoholism Treatment

Because of alcohol’s prevalence and accepted role as a social lubricant, the addiction to alcohol is an extremely difficult addiction to conquer. Much research points to total abstinence and (at least, initially) avoiding high-risk situation...

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Animal-Assisted Therapy

Researchers are recently analyzing the myriad opportunities other practitioners have long known about; that domesticated animals can bring not only friendship and distraction to anxious or bed-ridden patients, as well as any person that is desirin...

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Anxiety Disorder

Includes intense, excessive and persistent worry about situations that do not appear anxiety-producing for most people. This fear and perseveration may remain at a static, uncomfortable range but can spiral and culminate in a “panic attack&r...

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Anxiety Disorder in Children & Teens

Situations that induce anxiety in normal teens develops into excessive dread, disabling some children through teen years; often, symptoms emerge around age 6. While medication is still commonly prescribed, recent studies (including the Child/Adole...

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Art Therapy (with certified art therapists)

 “Art Therapy is a mental health profession in which clients, facilitated by the Art Therapist, use art media, the creative process, and the resulting artwork to explore their feelings, reconcile emotional conflicts, foster self-awarene...

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Aspergers

Due to neurodevelopmental differences, persons with “Aspergers Syndrome” or mild Autism exhibit significant impairment in social, occupational and other areas of functioning, such as an inability to read social cues, discomfort in soci...

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Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

The diagnosis of autism is often suspected in the first years, as some children display autistic-specific ways, like failing to make eye contact, not responding to verbal communications or displaying repetitive behaviors and preoccupations. For a ...

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Behavior Modification

 Almost universally misconstrued as “breaking people down”, behavior modification is a much more sophisticated and well-researched conceptualization that B.F. Skinner developed at Harvard University.  His main addition to the...

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Behavioral Tech

Behavioral Tech, is the name for the Linehan Institute of training.  Treatment facilities and treatment teams have go through the stringent training to be listed in it.  If a program is listed as a Behavioral Tech program and is listed i...

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Bipolar Disorder

Previously referred to as manic-depressive disorder, bipolar disorder is a “brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out daily tasks”. (National Institute of Health) People wi...

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Boarding School

Although there are boarding schools for all ages around the globe,  in the US, the majority of boarding schools serve high school aged students.  Boarding Schools  provide a diverse approach to traditional pedagogy, from Military Sc...

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Boot Camp

“Bootcamps” are at-risk teen programs designed around the  military approach for its primarily military style.  The focus is on dissolving a teen’s individual focus with a new focus on their place within a (fighting) sy...

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Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

BPD is most easily distinguished for observers by the person’s inability to regulate their emotions, meaning relationships are fraught with excessive drama. “People with BPD often have intense and stormy relationships. Attitudes toward...

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Bullying

Repeated aggression, in the form of physical, verbal, and now electronic harassment, has deleterious effects on children’s physical health, sleep and eating patterns, academic success and sense of self. Communities, and parents, are beginnin...

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Child Trauma Academy

The Child Trauma Academy (CTA) is a not-for-profit organization based in Houston, Texas working to improve the lives of high-risk children through direct service, research and education.  http://childtrauma.org/about-childtrauma-academy/

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Christian Therapy or Counseling

Christian Therapy or Counseling, is an approach that works with clients through the lens that God -- Father, Son and Holy Spirit and Biblical Scripture -- are the guiding forces from which to draw wisdom and strength and work through whatever the ...

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Christian Treatment Programs

Residential Treatment programs may also include “bible-” or  “God-centered”, or "philosophies and practice”, with varying levels of adoption expected.  For some programs, “turning yourself over to Chri...

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Chronic Pain Recovery

There are programs that focus on treating Chronic Pain. Because recovery from chronic pain is rare, treatment focuses children, adolescents and adults on managing with medical, biofeedback and therapy. Chronic pain can last for weeks, months, and ...

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Codependency

Conceptualized as the unconscious willingness to enable a partner’s alcoholism, the definition has expanded to include anyone in a relationship of dependence. 12 Step and other support groups intentionally push participants to recognize and ...

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Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT)

 Like most other behavioral psychotherapeutic models, CAT supposes that a person’s aim-directed activity is the consequence of ordered sequences of aim generation, environmental evaluation, plan formation, action, evaluation of conseque...

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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

CBT is founded on the perspective that the way we perceive something may actually be the reason we understand the situation in the way we do, so that the client’s focusing on the present and problem-solving can generate a more client-satisfy...

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Cutting

Self-injury and self-harm are deliberately harming one’s own body to cope with emotional discomfort. It is not intended as suicidality, as the act of self-injury relieves the stressor, temporarily; it can become repetitive, induces shame or ...

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Depression

The diagnosis of depression follows two (2) years of persistent symptoms of hopelessness, irritability, fatigue and ennui, possibly including suicidal thoughts or attempts. “Major depressive disorder is one of the most common mental disorder...

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Detox

The Mayo Clinic lists numerous post-considerations in combating alcoholism (and other addictions), after the substance is no longer accessible and detoxification has safely completed. These other considerations include individual and family-system...

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Diagnosis Assessment

Many families wanting a clinician, pediatrician, or psychiatrist for a particular diagnosis starts with the medical professional known to them.  The family doctor or family therapist may refer to professionals (such as  endocrinologists,...

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Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills

The first of 4 pillars of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy focuses on skills training, to help the client practice acceptance and to become familiar with living with cognitive dissonance through the behavioral skills of Zen Buddhism mindfulness. &nb...

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Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT)

“dialectical” means the synthesis of opposites and helps describe the skill and the mission of this therapy - the practice and goal is to simultaneously accept the current situation while acknowledging that it must change. DBT was init...

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Drug Treatment

Overcoming a drug addiction requires will power, possibly requires medical support (see Detox), individual and group addiction-specific therapeutic support, extensive practice with coping skills and relapse prevention. Self-help support groups, of...

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Dual Diagnosis

Any psychological difficulty combined with drug or alcohol addiction is qualified as “dual diagnosis”, as both disorders combine to create a sum very different from the individual parts and treatment of dual diagnosis is more complicat...

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EAGALA

The EAGALA model of equine therapy is renowned for its structure, code of ethics, adaptability, and proven success. It focuses on a team approach between the horse, the equine specialist, and the mental health professional to create opportunities ...

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Eating Disorder

An eating disorder is the consistently unhealthy relation to ingesting food, either eating too much, followed by purging (via vomiting, excessive exercise, laxatives, dieting, etc.) or anorexia (or self-starvation), where the sufferer has a motiva...

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Educational Therapist

An educational therapist recognizes a child's current learning challenge, understands the coping mechanisms that previously “worked” to mask the learning challenge, and then helps build the child’s confidence and competence from ...

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Equine-facilitated Psychotherapy (EFP) or Therapeutic Riding

In the last decade, interest around and research into the client-horse bond and using horses to develop self-sufficiency, self-confidence and overall feelings of well-being have been prolific.  In a 2005 article called “New age or old s...

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Executive Functioning

Executive Functioning is the constellation of higher-order processes that allow adults to consider the “Big Picture” and strategize, and delay gratification; in general, it is the ability of the brain to plan, organize, remember, manag...

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Exposure Response Prevention Therapy (ERP)

Exposure Response Prevention Therapy (ERP) is one of the typical methods of therapeutically and systematically “habituating” patients who suffer from OCD, as traditional talk therapy has not been shown to be effective.  The ERP st...

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Expressive Art Therapy

Expressive Arts include the many models of therapy that focus on the act of creating, rather than the end product.  This includes acting, imagination, dance / movement; “alongside talk therapy, or in some cases, exclusive to talk therap...

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Eye Movement & Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

This fascinating and powerful therapy was discovered by Francine Shapiro, Ph.D in 1987, following her own realization that moving her eyes back and forth gave her stress-reduction.  EMDR developed as a tested, reliable treatment that relies o...

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Failure To Launch

FAILURE TO LAUNCH, is a jargon term used in two different ways: for 18 + year olds who withdraw from college due to performance problems, or the college grad who moves home and is not motivated to move out.  Both of these situations might be ...

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Family Focused Therapy (FFT)

Given in 21 sessions over a 9 month period, Family Focused Therapy is a therapy for Bipolar Disorder consisting of sessions 1 - 7 covering psychoeducation about BD and then focused Communication training on expressing positive feelings, listening,...

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Family-Based Treatment (or "Maudsley Method")

Maudsley Method or Family-Based Treatment (FBT) that is designed to treat anorexia nervosa (AN).  This type of treatment was conceived by a team of child and adolescent psychiatrists and psychologists at the Maudsley Hospital in London.  

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Gambling Addiction

Gambling addiction (also called gambling disorder, compulsive gambling or pathological gambling) is the first process addiction disorder to be formally recognized by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). In the latest edition of the APA&rsqu...

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Generalist Programs

Generalist Programs - For the purpose of this website, the generalist residential programs provide stability and structure but with the emotional competence necessary for treatment of general teenage and emerging young adults issues; they do not i...

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Good Lives Model (GLM)

The Good Lives Model offers a respectful and engaging treatment model for sexual offenders.  “A central assumption of the GLM is that offending results from problems in the way an individual seeks to attain primary human goods… (...

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Intellectual Disabilities

Intellectual Disabilities are characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

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Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD)/Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD)

Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is the newest member of the process addiction family, and replaces the term Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD). It has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years, and has come to encompass a wide varie...

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Intervention

An intervention is essentially an “interruption” to promote a reframing of the current situation. An intervention is a structured process that breaks the cycle of dysfunction, typically used to interrupt dynamics associated to the dise...

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Interventionist

An interventionist is a professional who helps “intervene” on a maladaptive system. Interventions provide a novel and effective approach when a client is treatment-resistant, however this is not their only function. Typically working w...

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Learning Disabilities

“A learning disorder is a disorder that affects a person's ability to acquire and use academic skills, such as reading and calculating. Learning disorders aren't the same as mental or physical disabilities, and don't reflect a child's intell...

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LifeRing

LifeRing is another alternative to the 12 Step AA/NA model. LifeRing promotes an abstinence-based approach to recovery. They are a support group and their meetings are confidential. They believe that the power to be sober and lead a sober lif...

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Marijuana

The dried leaves of a hemp plant that contain THC, the psychoactive ingredient released by smoking or ingesting the marijuana. Marijuana possession is still federally prohibited but many states are experimenting with and a few have decriminalized ...

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Mealtime Support Therapy

Because nutrition and food become a battleground for families where a child suffers anorexia, bulimia or other eating disorders, Meal Support Therapy helps bring the parents into the treatment, and highlight the thoughts and feelings around food a...

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Medication Assisted Therapy (MAT)

Medication Assisted Therapy (MAT) combines typical behavioral therapies with specialized medications to treat substance use disorders and tobacco. “Medications are primarily used to treat substance use disorders related to opioids and alcoho...

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Meditation

This ancient practice of quiet and intense single-minded focus as a practice of spiritual acceptance has gained serious inroads in therapy and therapeutic programming, as a vector for reducing anxiety and impulsivity, promoting peacefulness, compa...

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Moderation Management (MM)

Moderation Management (MM) is another alternative to 12 Step.   The key to this model is it is for those who are not at a crisis point and are interested in assessing where they are in terms of needing help with alcohol or drug use. &nbs...

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Mood Disorder

Clinically, “mood” refers to a persistent emotional state that affects perception, rather than simply the passing feeling. And so a mood disorder primarily refers to depression and mania, and bipolar experiences (see also PTSD). These ...

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Motivational Enhancement Therapy

Motivational interviewing techniques are used in MET to help people who presently express ambivalence about drug use generate clearer principles and resistance.  MET has shown efficacy in alcohol and marijuana treatment, with less success wit...

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Motivational Interviewing (MI)

A critical difference in MI is the collaborative intent, that therapy using MI is not an expert-client approach, is not goal-oriented or psychoeducational but rather intends a very different relationship that is more team-oriented.

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Narrative Therapy

Narrative Therapy seeks, by developing mutual agreement between therapist and client that the memory and story is nonpathological, to use the act of telling the story as part of the resolution of the dysfunction.   In telling and retelli...

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NeuroFeedback

Neurofeedback is an interactive biofeedback arrangement that allows clients to visualize the brain in vivo, and allegedly helps the viewer to train the brain to behave differently.  While results are still controversial, some success has been...

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Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NVLD or NLD)

A nonverbal learning disorder is characterized by a significant discrepancy between high verbal skills and lower motor, and visuo-spatial skills on an IQ test. Because of guarding the deficiency and superior skills at verbal communicating, NVLD pe...

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OBH (Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare)

Outdoor behavioral healthcare is the prescriptive use of wilderness experiences by licensed mental health professionals to meet the therapeutic needs of clients. The Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Council and its member programs have been inst...

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OBH Center

As outdoor behavioral healthcare, also know as Wilderness Therapy, became more favored as a treatment option for troubled teens in the 1990’s (and later pre-adolescents and young adults), avoidable and sometimes fatal accidents occ...

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Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD)

While the very role of children is to “individuate” from the parents, ODD is a pattern of persistent (more than 6 months) defiance and hostility toward authority figures and structure, and these people are aggressive toward peers, as w...

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OQ-45 (Outcomes Questionnaire 45) for adult clients

The OQ-45 measures Symptom Distress, Interpersonal Relations and Social Role Performance. (The OQ-45 is the adult client version of the Y-OQ.)

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Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)

PDD Not Otherwise Specified (PDD NOS) was broken out as a separate disorder. It is also sometimes interchangeable with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). And like other diagnosis it has a wide range of intellectual functioning. Most of its defining f...

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Play Therapy

Primarily practiced with 3 -11 year old children, play therapy utilizes developmentally appropriate activities and imagination designed to communicate in the “language” of the young child, in order to help identify and help resolve ps...

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Positive Peer Culture

Positive Peer Culture (PPC), is a milieu driven residential treatment model created by Harry Vorrath in 1985.  His book Positive Peer Culture described a model that is primarily peer driven, with students holding one another accountable. Vorr...

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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

What originally was described as “shell shock” by the military, PTSD is the constellation of symptoms due to trauma (war experience, physical violence, or other events), creating a psychological and perceptual alteration. PTSD is chara...

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Process Addictions

Process addictions are compulsive behaviors accompanied by social and emotional (the feeling that is brought on by the behavior), and occupational dysfunction. They can involve a wide range of activities, such as gambling, eating, exercising, vide...

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Psychodynamic Therapy

In contrast with CBT and other direct clinical relationships between symptoms and behavior reduction, psychodynamic therapy (and “depth therapies”) approaches symptomatology as the result of unconscious dynamics.  Freuds’ ps...

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Psychoeducation

Psychoeducation is a clinical approach to providing information and guidance about symptoms, treatments and resources, first to help the client directly but secondarily, to provide family-system wellbeing and support.

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Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

A distinguishing characteristic of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT_ is its ‘active-directive” orientation, with a primary focus on the present time.  Dr. Albert Ellis developed this therapy from Stoicism and  around &...

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Rational Recovery

Jack Trimpey, LCSW, created Rational Recovery in 1986 as an alternative to the popular 12 Step model. In Rational Recovery, there are no meetings, and unlike AA, it is a family-centered approach; participation is private because you purchase the b...

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Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD)

The diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) (or the other subtype Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder refers to the abnormal process of attachment due to social neglect or other situations that limit a young child’s opportunity t...

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Recovery

“The act or process of becoming healthy after an illness or injury : the act or process of recovering”(from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/recovery) 

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Recovery High Schools

Recovery High Schools come in all different shapes and sizes and are located all around the country, ranging from public schools, charter schools and schools where families pay out-of-pocket to attend. The overarching key is that Recovery High Sch...

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Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care (ROSC)

Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care (ROSC) was published in 2010 by SAMHSA to develop a network of community-based services supporting person-centered approaches built on the strengths of individuals, families and communities to achieve abstinence a...

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Recreation Therapy

Recreation therapy improves functioning and skills and thereby provides life satisfaction and long-term wellness by restoring, remediating and rehabilitating clients following injury, illness or trauma.

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Relapse

Once considered a failure of willpower, or an indictment against the treatment model, re-use of drugs or alcohol following treatment occurs in at least 50% of participants and relapse (return to excessive use) occurs in 20-30%. Recent brain-i...

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Research Designated Program (RDP)

RDP is a designation for treatment programs who are members of the National Association of Therapeutic Schools and Programs (NATSAP), to promote the use of efficacy testing among its member programs. To qualify for the RDP designation, programs mu...

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Residential Treatment

The treatment facilities on this site are perhaps not what you are envisioning  -- they are not all locked facilities nor sterile institutions -they can be home like settings or ranch/farm settings. There are many different levels of resident...

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Sand Tray Therapy

Like Play Therapy, Sand Tray was originally designed to help children communicate, and has generalized for adolescent and adult therapy.  While clients might build in the sand itself, traditional sand tray includes tiny houses, vehicles, figu...

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Schizophrenia

Persons with schizophrenia suffer auditory and visual hallucinations, general thought disorders and delusional thoughts, straining personal relationships tremendously and making some professional relationships impossible. Schizophrenic symptoms us...

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School Refusal

Some children refuse school due to social phobia (the debilitating fear of being judged, often for seemingly innocuous behaviors, occurring consistently over weeks), sometimes exacerbated by the challenges of school participation; the typical jost...

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Seeking Safety

Seeking Safety is a present-focused treatment for substance abuse, PTSD and trauma that does not include a requirement for investigating the trauma narrative.  It has 5 main principles: safety, integrated treatment, focus on ideals, 4 common ...

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Severe Learning Disabilities

Severe learning disabilities are typically diagnosed at birth or in childhood. A sign of a developmental delay might noticed pediatrician, teacher, or family member and can be the catalyst to prompt a formal assessment. Many of the children diagno...

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Sex Addiction / Hypersexual Disorder

"Compulsive sexual behavior can be called hypersexuality, hypersexual disorder, nymphomania or sexual addiction.  It's an obsession with sexual thoughts, urges or behaviors that may cause you distress or that negatively affects your health, j...

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Sex and Love Addiction

Although these are not part of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), there are varying treatment centers which are treating love addiction and/or sex addiction for all different ages. There are also treatment programs ...

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Sexting

Combining the words sex and texting, sexting is the practice of electronically sending sexually explicit images and messages between cell phones; this practice is legal amongst consenting adults. Sexting has become more and more common among teens...

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Short Term Workshops

Workshops are intense, short-term group exercises to highlight and grapple with common issues focused on by the individual participants, where each can become aware of and practice challenging old dysfunctional patterns and to formulate support an...

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Sober Living

Sober Living environments or houses are living places for is generally referred to alcohol and drug dependence that provide a place between a rehabilitation center or residential treatment center to either home or a new life in a community. They h...

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Sobriety

Sobriety means different things to different people. Culturally, many tie it to the 12 Step model which means abstinence. However, how a program or model defines sobriety has evolved in recent years. (See Recovery) In legal terms, sobriety refers ...

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Social Life Skills

Social Life Skills are tied to an individual’s interpersonal skills with peers, family and the public. They are synonymous with one’s ability to problem solve in the moment, read social cues,  or ask or explain what is needed for ...

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SOS (Secular Organization for Sobriety)

While the 12 Step (AA model) is an authoritative approach for entrenched substance addiction, there are some compelling reasons why teens with addiction or substance use histories do not connect with it. . SOS offers the social construct of 12 Ste...

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Spice

Also known as “K2,” “fake weed,” “Bliss,” “Black Mamba,” “Bombay Blue,” “Genie,” “Zohai,” “Yucatan Fire,” “Skunk,” and “Moon Rocks.&r...

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Substance Abuse

To meet the clinical criteria for substance abuse, there must be a “pattern of substance use leading to significant impairment or distress, as manifested by one or more of the following during in the past 12 month period:

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Substance Dependance

Different treatment programs and residential treatment assess and work with substance dependence in different ways and some residential settings do not intend to work with substance abuse or dependence at all.  

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The OQ-45 (for adult clients)

The OQ-45 measures Symptom Distress, Interpersonal Relations and Social Role Performance. (The OQ-45 is the adult version of the Y-OQ.) “A product of over two decades of research by Dr. Michael Lambert, the OQ®-45.2 is a self-report Outc...

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The Teaching Family Model

THE TEACHING-FAMILY MODEL is one of the few evidence-based residential treatment models backed by extensive empirical research. The model views children's behavior problems as stemming from their lack of essential interpersonal relationships and s...

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Therapeutic Boarding Schools (TBS)

Therapeutic Boarding Schools (TBS) are a type of residential therapeutic program. Most have an integrated education program. TBS is also a type of license that a state will give to a program and each state has different licenses. The reason for th...

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Therapeutic Experts

There are two types of therapeutic experts listed on our website: professionals who make recommendations for residential treatment options and school settings, and professionals who take teens and young adults to treatment centers.  It i...

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Transitional Living Community Based Support

In support of eventual independence, Recovery and “step-down” programs have developed extensive community networks for clientele with support for employment, sports and other interests, “sober fun”, etc., promoting that cli...

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Wilderness First Responder (WFR)

Wilderness First Responder training and certification typically involves 60 hours of Emergency Medical Response [urban skills education] training, often focusing on pre-teen through adulthood emergency care (and specifically not consider...

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Wilderness Therapy

Dr. Keith Russell’s opening sentence in his seminal 1999 dissertation bemoaned the lack of specificity regarding the terms “Wilderness Therapy” and so he compiled the similarities of existing programs into this defining group of ...

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Wilderness Therapy Models

Wilderness Therapy is a primary treatment provider. It involves safely intervening, clinically assessing and creating an environment for teens and young adults to self-examine and for treatment to begin. Therapeutic interventions work with student...

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Women for Sobriety

Women for Sobriety, founded by Dr. Jean Kirkpatrick in 1976, is another alternative to the 12 Steps. Anon-profit organization dedicated to helping women overcome alcoholism and other addictions, Women for Sobriety’s "New Life Program” ...

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YOQ (Youth Outcomes Questionnaire)

The OQ-45 and YOQ were developed "to be:

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