In attempting to buttress parental rights while simultaneously protecting its young citizens from unacceptable threat or harm, the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) (42 U.S.C.A. § 5106g) defines child abuse and neglect, at minimum, as: "Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm." Federal and State laws also define civil and criminal sanctions for maltreatment.
Volumes of research attempt to isolate academic conditions in relation to national income, gender, income inequality, poverty, school location and class size, etc. While each of these play significant roles in general trends, schools that offer excellent learning environments (consistent, holistic, stimulating curriculum) and a child’s early literacy development have proven to be key elements toward escaping the trends.
An empirically-based psychotherapy which argues that “psychological suffering is usually caused by the interface between human language and cognition, and the control of human behavior by direct experience.” ACT seems closely related to CBT but also leverages meditation and mindfulness as tools to help the client profoundly accept his/her reaction and avoidance first, before seeking to behave in such a way as to skirt stress.
Everyone is familiar with the maxim that addiction is insanity, it is “doing the same thing time and again, always expecting a different result.” On the ground, this definition seems a bit trite, and judgmental.
A more biochemical definition includes the often unconscious and compulsive aspect: “in addiction, pursuit of rewards persists, despite life problems that accumulate due to addictive behaviors, even when engagement in the behaviors ceases to be pleasurable.”
To adopt is to “legally take another’s child and bring it up as one’s own” (Oxford Dictionary). Silverstein and Kaplan (1982) listed 7 considerations that every adoption introduces: Loss, Rejection, Guilt and Shame, Grief, Identity, Intimacy, Mastery/control, and that every adoptee and new family deals with inside the new relationship.
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Unlike medical treatment or even psychotherapy, the support principles of Alcoholics Anonymous (“AA”),organized ~1930, start, fundamentally, that the addict, with sponsorship and firm guidance from addicts before, can effectively combat addictive urges for the remainder of his/her life practicing 12 codified principles. Membership is voluntary and private; participation is free.
Because of alcohol’s prevalence and accepted role as a social lubricant, the addiction to alcohol is an extremely difficult addiction to conquer. Much research points to total abstinence and (at least, initially) avoiding high-risk situations as the first guideposts, and 12 Step programs or other professional or peer support can assist Mild-to-Moderate alcoholics (persons capable of maintaining some level of sobriety). Family and friend support is extremely beneficial, especially if they recognize their enabling behaviors (see Codependency). For persons consumed by alcoholism, detox followed by inpatient treatment (psychotherapy, abstinence, peer support) often breaks the addictive cycle long enough to provide clarity, structure and initiative for the addict.
"...We are composed of more than 30 member facilities offering residential care to adults with serious mental challenges, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, personality disorders, and disorders combined with substance abuse. We deliberately keep our membership low in order to have personal knowledge of one another’s facilities, which lets us offer you informed recommendations. We are dedicated to providing you with information and guidance that will help you through this process..."
Researchers are recently analyzing the myriad opportunities other practitioners have long known about; that domesticated animals can bring not only friendship and distraction to anxious or bed-ridden patients, as well as any person that is desiring contact and affection, but that the positive effects are measurable and predictable. Equine therapy (the study of the interaction between patient and horse) has been extremely well-received at RTCs, and offers an engaging and highly-desired practice between the student and the program’s horses.
Includes intense, excessive and persistent worry about situations that do not appear anxiety-producing for most people. This fear and perseveration may remain at a static, uncomfortable range but can spiral and culminate in a “panic attack”, (exacerbated in part by shallow breathing and pounding heartbeat). Examples of anxiety disorders include social anxiety, phobias and separation anxiety disorder. (See School Refusal)
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Situations that induce anxiety in normal teens develops into excessive dread, disabling some children through teen years; often, symptoms emerge around age 6. While medication is still commonly prescribed, recent studies (including the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS)), “CAMS clearly showed that combination treatment is the most effective for these children. But sertraline [Zoloft] alone or Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy alone showed a good response rate as well.
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“Art Therapy is a mental health profession in which clients, facilitated by the Art Therapist, use art media, the creative process, and the resulting artwork to explore their feelings, reconcile emotional conflicts, foster self-awareness, manage behavior and addictions, develop social skills, improve reality orientation, reduce anxiety, and increase self-esteem.” http://www.arttherapy.org/
Due to neurodevelopmental differences, persons with “Aspergers Syndrome” or mild Autism exhibit significant impairment in social, occupational and other areas of functioning, such as an inability to read social cues, discomfort in social situations, often having inordinate focus and recall regarding some particular interest. The previously-independent diagnosis of Aspergers has been absorbed into Autism Spectrum Disorders in the DSM V.
Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (DSM 5) is a brain-based syndrome affecting a person’s ability to complete complex tasks. To be diagnosed, a child must exhibit at least 6 of 10 behaviors (adult diagnosis requiring at least 5) pertaining to organization, distractibility, focus and completion of tasks, with a hyperactivity/impulsivity component often present in a sub-population. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/adhd/basics/definition/con-20023647
The diagnosis of autism is often suspected in the first years, as some children display autistic-specific ways, like failing to make eye contact, not responding to verbal communications or displaying repetitive behaviors and preoccupations. For a description of early indicators of autism, the American Academy of Pediatrics has developed the M-CHAT (https://www.m-chat.org). There are many other formal diagnostic tests that professionals use to assess ASD. There are a wide range of behaviors and skills on the autism spectrum, from highly verbal to entirely non verbal. Proper diagnosis provides caretakers with guidelines for helping support as much self-sufficiency as practical.
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