Intellectual Disabilities are characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.
Intellectual functioning (known as “intelligence” or as IQ) is a measurement of learning, reasoning and problem solving. Disability requires an IQ score of 75 or below.
Adaptive disability can be measured within three areas of behavior:
conceptional - language, literary, measurement of time, money, math and self direction
social - interpersonal skills, social responsibility, self-esteem, social problem solving, and the ability to follow rules/obey laws and to avoid being victimized
practical skills - daily living, occupational skills, transportation, schedules, safety, use of money, communication on the phone or computer.
paraphrased from http://aaidd.org/intellectual-disability/definition#.VPSbQbPF8fg
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Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is the newest member of the process addiction family, and replaces the term Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD). It has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years, and has come to encompass a wide variety of maladaptive behaviors, including problematic video gaming, internet gambling and pornography consumption, compulsive online shopping, and excessive social networking. Internet addiction often co-occurs with a wide variety of psychiatric symptoms, including insomnia, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsiveness, and substance use, and is associated with social isolation, poor interpersonal relations, family instability, and low academic performance. (Source: “Exploring Internet Addiction as a Process Addiction,” Journal of Mental Health Counseling: April 2016, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 170-182.)Submitted by: Cosette Rae, MSW, LICSW, ACSW, CDWFCEO, Founding Member, Program Director, reSTART
An intervention is essentially an “interruption” to promote a reframing of the current situation. An intervention is a structured process that breaks the cycle of dysfunction, typically used to interrupt dynamics associated to the disease of addiction, though responsive toward other relevant maladaptive behaviors, paraphilic disorders, and other compulsive behaviors. (Maladaptive behaviors can range from substance use disorders, paraphilic disorders, and other compulsive behaviors.) The intervention aims to guide the resistant “identified patient(s)” to identify self-destructive behaviors, and how those behaviors impact themselves, family, coworkers, and friends. The ultimate goal of this process is to guide the individual(s) towards treatment.
An interventionist is a professional who helps “intervene” on a maladaptive system. Interventions provide a novel and effective approach when a client is treatment-resistant, however this is not their only function. Typically working with the families, employers or concerned Others, the interventionist works with the group to help identify realistic treatment options based on need, diagnostics, and benefactor. Forming a united front based on concrete goals, the newly formed group will help guide the afflicted individual towards treatment.
From an educational lens, the interventionist will provide direction and guidance on how to heal the system from the behaviors that are causing distress. Treatment can come in many forms, from coaching, intensive outpatient, residential, detoxification, long term care, and in some cases moderation.
An interventionist should be able to do the following:
- Assess the situation (family, workplace, lifestyle) to determine the level of care.
- Determine treatment options and unify the system that is concerned (family, workplace, friends).
- Educate the system on how to appropriately approach in a non-threatening way.
- Provide options for safe passage to treatment.
- Assist the family in making decisions on how to move forward regardless on if the identified patient enters treatment.
An interventionist should be licensed or certified through a credible agency such as the Pennsylvania Board or the Certified Intervention Professional (CIP). Ideally, the interventionist will have been exposed to ethical training and will be transparent with a client if there are any dual relationships (employed by a treatment center, owns a treatment center, paid by a treatment center for speeches, etc).
AUTHORAdam McLean holds a master’s degree in Clinical Psychology and a bachelor’s degree in Marketing. He is working towards his PhD in Clinical Psychology from California Southern University. Additionally he is a Certified Intervention Professional (CIP) with the Pennsylvania Control Board. He is currently the Executive Director of Life of Purpose in Phoenix, Arizona, which means he is overseeing the developing of Life of Purpose in Phoenix, AZ and serves as a liaison to families and the professional community. Adam has a wide variety of experience, from community mental health, to long term extended care, to an outdoor adventure therapy program with traditional treatment modalities for treatment of substance abuse. Additionally, Adam works with the National Association of Drug Court Professionals (NADCP) to establish alternative sentencing for chronic drug offenders.