Intellectual Disabilities are characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.
Intellectual functioning (known as “intelligence” or as IQ) is a measurement of learning, reasoning and problem solving. Disability requires an IQ score of 75 or below.
Adaptive disability can be measured within three areas of behavior:
conceptional - language, literary, measurement of time, money, math and self direction
social - interpersonal skills, social responsibility, self-esteem, social problem solving, and the ability to follow rules/obey laws and to avoid being victimized
practical skills - daily living, occupational skills, transportation, schedules, safety, use of money, communication on the phone or computer.
paraphrased from http://aaidd.org/intellectual-disability/definition#.VPSbQbPF8fg
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