PDD Not Otherwise Specified (PDD NOS) was broken out as a separate disorder. It is also sometimes interchangeable with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). And like other diagnosis it has a wide range of intellectual functioning. Most of its defining features are with social challenges in social and language development. With the publication of the DSM-5 it is now part of Communication Disorders. “Some of these include language disorder (which combines DSM-IV expressive and mixed receptive-expressive language disorders), speech sound disorder (a new name for phonological disorder), and childhood-onset fluency disorder (a new name for stuttering). Also included is social (pragmatic) communication disorder, a new condition for persistent difficulties in the social uses of verbal and nonverbal communication.”
Primarily practiced with 3 -11 year old children, play therapy utilizes developmentally appropriate activities and imagination designed to communicate in the “language” of the young child, in order to help identify and help resolve psychosocial complications.
Positive Peer Culture (PPC) is a milieu driven residential treatment model described in 1985's Positive Peer Culture by Harry Vorrath. His book described his pioneering model as primarily peer driven, with students holding one another accountable. Vorrath posited that this change can happen through “self worth, significance, dignity, and responsibility only as they become committed to positive values of caring and helping of others” (page xi). The key to a Positive Peer Culture model is the training that the staff receive and the common language that is spoken amongst the staff to the students. Many residential settings have pieces of PPC, but a program that is all PPC, lives and breathes the language and the values.
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What originally was described as “shell shock” by the military, PTSD is the constellation of symptoms due to trauma (war experience, physical violence, or other events), creating a psychological and perceptual alteration. PTSD is characterized by depression, anxiety, flashbacks and recurrent nightmares, with active avoidance of reminders of the event. Because of PTSD’s generalizing character, psychotherapy and anti-anxiety medication can be extremely helpful in treating the effects. Very recent research suggests that some of the symptoms (e.g., jumpiness aspect of anxiety) may stem from an “... alteration of genes, induced by a traumatic event, changes a person's stress response and leads to the disorder," said researcher Sandro Galea, MD.
Process addictions are compulsive behaviors accompanied by social and emotional (the feeling that is brought on by the behavior), and occupational dysfunction. They can involve a wide range of activities, such as gambling, eating, exercising, video gaming, spending, working and pornography use. Internet Addiction (previously known as Internet Gaming Disorder), Sex and Love Addiction, and Gambling Addiction function in a manner quite similar to drug and alcohol addiction. Process addictions are frequently associated with classic addiction characteristics, such as tolerance and withdrawal, salience (preoccupation or obsession), and cycles of recovery and relapse. The key distinction for Process Addictions is the addiction is to a behavior rather than a substance (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3354400).
The only process addiction that is currently listed in the DSM-5 is gambling.
Written in conjunction with Cosette Rae, MSW, LICSW, ACSW, CDWF CEO, Founding Member, Program Director, reSTART
In contrast with CBT and other direct clinical relationships between symptoms and behavior reduction, psychodynamic therapy (and “depth therapies”) approaches symptomatology as the result of unconscious dynamics. Freuds’ psychoanalytic theory first described the sexual and aggressive forces of the id, ego and superego competing in one’s unconscious; brief psychodynamic therapy, instead of free association and 2 years of analysis, focuses on one issue and the therapist remains active in structuring the sessions and keeping the client focused.
Psychoeducation is a clinical approach to providing information and guidance about symptoms, treatments and resources, first to help the client directly but secondarily, to provide family-system wellbeing and support.