A distinguishing characteristic of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT_ is its ‘active-directive” orientation, with a primary focus on the present time. Dr. Albert Ellis developed this therapy from Stoicism and around “disputing” cognitive thinking errors overtly. Essentially, REBT posits that Adversity - Beliefs - Consequences is a linear formula that is primarily based on the existing beliefs, and that changing these beliefs is the key to contentment.
Jack Trimpey, LCSW, created Rational Recovery in 1986 as an alternative to the popular 12 Step model. In Rational Recovery, there are no meetings, and unlike AA, it is a family-centered approach; participation is private because you purchase the book and the model and work the program by one’s self.
The diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) (or the other subtype Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder refers to the abnormal process of attachment due to social neglect or other situations that limit a young child’s opportunity to form selective attachments. RAD has several criteria that must be met in order to meet the diagnosis according to the DSM-5. Although sharing this etiological pathway, the two disorders differ in important ways.
Because of dampened positive affect, reactive attachment disorder more closely resembles internalizing disorders; it is essentially equivalent to a lack of or incompletely- formed preferred attachments to caregiving adults. In contrast, disinhibited social engagement disorder more closely resembles ADHD; it may occur in children who do not necessarily lack attachments and may have established or even have secure attachments. The two disorders differ in other important ways, including correlates, course, and response to intervention, and for these reasons are considered separate subtypes of the disorders.
“The act or process of becoming healthy after an illness or injury : the act or process of recovering”
Recovery, in the therapeutic world, typically refers to a life-long process of becoming sober (“I am in recovery from alcoholism"). Likewise, in the recovery world, sober persons still refer to themselves as addicts, alcoholics, etc, acknowledging the “one day at a time” condition of sobriety.
Recovery High Schools come in all different shapes and sizes and are located all around the country, ranging from public schools, charter schools and schools where families pay out-of-pocket to attend. The overarching key is that Recovery High Schools focus on providing academic rigor in a milieu sensitive to recovery and sobriety for high school aged students. Learn more about them through the Association of Recovery Schools, which accredits the recovery high schools and provides guidance on how to create a recovery school.
Recovery-Oriented Systems of Care (ROSC) was published in 2010 by SAMHSA to develop a network of community-based services supporting person-centered approaches built on the strengths of individuals, families and communities to achieve abstinence and improve health and wellness for those who are at risk of alcohol and drug problems.
William White’s Overview, http://www.williamwhitepapers.com/pr/CSAT%20ROSC%20Definition.pdf
Recreation therapy improves functioning and skills and thereby provides life satisfaction and long-term wellness by restoring, remediating and rehabilitating clients following injury, illness or trauma.
Once considered a failure of willpower, or an indictment against the treatment model, re-use of drugs or alcohol following treatment occurs in at least 50% of participants and relapse (return to excessive use) occurs in 20-30%. Recent brain-imaging studies show that previous sensitization of (drug) reward pathways makes users far more susceptible to relapse than logic would suggest. Triggers can stimulate the pathway extremely effectively and launch a former user toward use without conscious processing. Because of the predisposition for relapse and possible addiction recurrence, successful treatment includes maintenance (focus on needing recovery, vs. finally being cured), abstinence structure (see Sober Living, 12 Step) and random drug testing, stress tolerance (mindfulness, exercise, etc) and sometimes prescription medication.
RDP is a designation for treatment programs who are members of the National Association of Therapeutic Schools and Programs (NATSAP), to promote the use of efficacy testing among its member programs. To qualify for the RDP designation, programs must either be contributing data to NATSAP’s ongoing “Outcome Research Project”, or the program is efficacy-testing in other scientifically valid measures.
The Outcome Research Project provides a very large dataset on demographics, YOQ changes throughout enrollment, and parent OQ measures over time, as well. Data from actual family participation is “de-identified” and then added to a cumulative dataset managed by researchers at the OBHCenter, who analyze the data for safety and risk management, treatment paradigms across populations, and efficacy studies
The treatment facilities on this site are perhaps not what you are envisioning -- they are not all locked facilities nor sterile institutions -they can be home like settings or ranch/farm settings. There are many different levels of residential treatment for adolescents. (Please see "Questions to guide parents" blog, for deeper investigation into RTCs.)
This website does not try to distinguish between therapeutic boarding school (TBS) and residential treatment centers (RTC). The reason for this is that state governments license schools and programs differently and the labels do not mirror between states; some states do not license adolescent therapeutic programs (read more here). When you are investigating options, you want to compare the facts from this website and then investigate the nuance of a program and the level of care for the developmental level of your child and his/her psychological urgency, and the five areas below:
- Family: How will your family participate in the process? How are family visits done? How long does your child need away from the family system or home setting?
- Psychiatry: Does your child need a psychiatrist on staff or just part of the treatment team and collaborating with the program?
- Activities/Recreation/Milieu: When or does your child leave the campus? What level of supervision in the unsupervised community does your teen need? What sorts of socializing are valuable at this point?
- Education: Does your child need a program that has an integrated education and treatment program? Does your child need need to focus on academic credit recovery?
- Therapy / Group Therapy: Is there group therapy and/or individual? Does your child need more of one than the other? Does your child have the capacity for insight driven therapy or does he need experiential or (peer-supported) group models of therapy?
Making the decision to send your teen to any residential program is one of the hardest decisions a parent or guardian can make. It is strongly encouraged that at least one family member have a formal tour of the program before deciding on a treatment facility. The main reason is while the teen is in treatment there will be positive and negative events; prior to these, you need to visit with the administrators, staff, and students and decide if you can trust the program and process. If your family does not trust the program and the people, it will derail the process. Another reason to visit is to gain a “feel” for the program that no website can give you. And finally, be certain to have the “team” or professional who is working with your teen be part of the assessment of a program.
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